This crater on northern Elysium Planitia is a little more than twice the diameter of the famous Meteor Crater in Arizona, U.S.A. It formed by the impact and subsequent explosion of a meteorite. Picture from MOC in July 1998. Photo Credit: NASA/JPL/Malin Space Science Systems Topics: Craters, What -- Crater, Where -- Arizona Source: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/craters/PIA02084.html
'Controversy Over the Moon' (1971) 15m, dir. Charles L. Finance. This film describes the efforts of scientists to determine the composition of the moon and how it affects the solar system, what meteors aremade from and how craters are formed. The debate here, between geologists Jack Green, who advocates vulcanism, and Eugene M. Shoemaker, who advocates meteorite collision, is over what caused the Copernicus carter. Another in the AGI (American Geological Institute)'Eath Science' series of films... Topics: afana, moon, geology, meteors, craters, astrology, volcanoes
Naosuke Sekiguchi Catalogue of Central Peaks and Floor Objects of the Lunar Craters on the Visible Hemisphere University of Tokyo Press 1972 Acrobat 7 Pdf 4.63 Mb. Scanned by artmisa using Canon DR2580C + flatbed option Topics: Astronomy, Moon, Craters, Peaks, Domes, Mounds, Rilles
One of the great surprises of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission is the discovery at Meridiani Planum that the surface hematite signature observed from orbit is attributable largely to a surface enrichment of hematite-rich spherules, thought to be concretions, that have weathered out of rocks similar to the underlying sulfate-rich rock formation . A strong hematite signature has been observed by the Mini-TES  and by in-situ measurements of spherule-rich targets by the Mossbauer... Topics: CRATERS, SOILS, LANDING SITES, DUNES, ILLUMINATING, RIPPLES
byGlavin, D. P.; Aubrey, A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Botta, O.; Bada, J. L
The report by McKay et al. that the Martian meteorite ALH84001 contains evidence for life on Mars remains controversial. Of central importance is whether ALH84001 and other Antarctic Martian meteorites contain endogenous organic compounds. In any investigation of organic compounds possibly derived from Mars it is important to focus on compounds that play an essential role in biochemistry as we know it and that have properties such as chirality which can be used to distinguish between biotic... Topics: CRATERS, THICKNESS, TOPOGRAPHY, MARS SURFACE, COMPACTING, RIMS
There are few things more intriguing in high energy astrophysics than the study of the highest energy particles in the universe. Where and how these particles achieve their extreme energies is of interest not only to the astrophysicist but also to the particle physicist. At GeV and TeV energies the problem is manageable since the physics is known and the acceleration processes feasible. But the energy spectrum extends to 10(exp 20)Ev and there the problem of their origin is both more difficult... Topics: ARCHIPELAGOES, LAKE SUPERIOR, BRECCIA, CRATERS, METEORITE CRATERS, METAMORPHIC ROCKS, IGNEOUS...
ULTRASHORT-WAVE PROPAGATION IN THE VENUSIAN ATMOSPHERE IS INVESTIGATED IN TWO MODELS AS A FUNCTION OF THE VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC REFRACTIVE INDEX. THE VENUSIAN ATMOSPHERE IS FOUND TO BE TURBULENT TO AN ALTITUDE OF ABOUT 40 KM, RADIO WAVE ATTENUATION IN THE VENUSIAN ATMOSPHERE IS CAUSED MAINLY BY MOLECULAR ABSORPTION, AND REFRACTIVE EFFECTS ARE STRONG IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF VENUS. Topics: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, LUNAR SURFACE VEHICLES, LUNAR CRATERS, LUNAR TOPOGRAPHY, TECTONICS
A bearing for telescope mounts on the moon has to function in a cold dusty vacuum environment that impairs the operation of almost all traditional bearings, but it is a natural environment for bearings constructed out of magnets and high temperature superconductors. The challenge lies not so much in the weight of the telescope that has to be supported, but in the smoothness of forces required for precision positioning control over a long stretch of time without human intervention. In this... Topics: GEOCHEMISTRY, STRUCTURAL BASINS, LUNAR CRATERS, ANOMALIES, MOON, SPECTRA, DEPOSITS, SURVEYS
This paper investigates the utility of the Hilbert-Huang transform for the analysis of aeroelastic flight data. It is well known that the classical Hilbert transform can be used for time-frequency analysis of functions or signals. Unfortunately, the Hilbert transform can only be effectively applied to an extremely small class of signals, namely those that are characterized by a single frequency component at any instant in time. The recently-developed Hilbert-Huang algorithm addresses the... Topics: MARS CRATERS, MARS SURFACE, GEOPHYSICS, PLANETARY GEOLOGY, EJECTA, ABSTRACTS, TECTONICS
The designated landing site for the first Mars Exploration Rover mission is Gusev Crater, seen here in its geological context from NASA Viking images. Topics: Craters, What -- Mars Exploration Rover (MER), What -- Crater, What -- Viking Source: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/craters/20030411a.html
In recent years, much effort has been spent examining the residual stress-strain states of advanced composites. Such examinations are motivated by a number of significant concerns that affect composite development, processing, and analysis. The room-temperature residual stress states incurred in many advanced composite systems are often quite large and can introduce damage even prior to the first external mechanical loading of the material. These stresses, which are induced during the cooldown... Topics: TITAN, SATELLITE SURFACES, ALBEDO, DICHOTOMIES, PHOTOMETRY, METEORITE CRATERS, INFRARED IMAGERY
ANALYSIS OF THERMAL STRESSES IN AN INFINITE, ELASTIC, ORTHOTROPIC CYLINDER SUBJECTED TO AXISYMMETRIC HEATING IS CONSIDERED. EXACT FORMULAS WERE DERIVED FROM CONSTANT ELASTIC PARAMETERS AND FOR ELASTIC PARAMETERS VARYING ALONG THE RADIUS. A COMPUTATIONAL ALGORITHM IS GIVEN FOR A LAMINATED CYLINDER WITH AN ARBITRARY NUMBER OF LAYERS. A SYSTEM OF FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS SUITABLE FOR NUMERICAL INTEGRATION WAS OBTAINED. Topics: GLASS, METEORITE CRATERS, RUBIDIUM ISOTOPES, STRONTIUM ISOTOPES, TEKTITES, AFRICA
A method for long-term storage of digitalized analog signals on simple audio tape recorders of the cassette type is described. It can be used for continuous analog signals, as they have high redundancy. On playback, recording errors can be detected and largely corrected. The readout of stored digital data can take place in digital form as well as in analog form after suitable conversion. At readout the faulty or erroneous data are marked and the number of errors counted. Topics: LUNAR GEOLOGY, LUNAR SURFACE, MAGMA, METEORITE CRATERS, PHOTOMAPS, TECTONICS, VOLCANOLOGY, LUNAR...
Astrogeologic studies for space flight program - lunar geology, crater investigations, space chemistry, petrography, and photometry Topics: CRATERS, PETROGRAPHY, PHOTOMETRY, SPACE FLIGHT, LUNAR CRATERS, LUNAR GEOLOGY, PETROGRAPHY,...
Details of the Gusev Crater designated landing site are added with topographic information and higher-resolution imaging from instruments on the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey orbiters. Topics: Craters, What -- Crater, What -- Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter (MGS), What -- Surveyor, What -- Mars Source: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/craters/20030411b.html
byScott, A. G.; Williams, W. J. W.; Mazumder, M. K.; Biris, A.; Srirama, P. K
NASA missions to Mars confirm presence of surficial particles, as well as dramatic periods of aeolian reworking. Dust deposition on, or infiltration into, exploration equipment such as spacecraft, robotic explorers, solar panel power supplies, and even spacesuits, can pose significant problems such as diminished power collection, short circuits / discharges, and added weight. We report results conducted initially as a science fair project and a study now part of a first year University... Topics: MARS CRATERS, ALLUVIUM, DEPOSITION, GRAVITATION, GRAIN SIZE, SURVEYS, MARS 1 SPACECRAFT
The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival.... Topics: MARS CRATERS, TEXTURES, DEPOSITS, GEOCHEMISTRY, EXPLOSIONS, HEMATITE, MORPHOLOGY, HALLEY'S COMET,...
byHolden, Kritina; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S. G.; McCann, R. S.; Kaiser, M. K.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S
The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew on flight vehicles, surface landers and habitats, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Designers of displays and controls for exploration missions must be prepared to select the text formats, label styles, alarms, electronic procedure designs, and cursor control devices that provide for optimal crew performance on exploration... Topics: MINERALOGY, EXPLOSIONS, EXPOSURE, MARS EXPLORATION, MOSSBAUER EFFECT, SEDIMENTARY ROCKS, MARS...
Epithermal neutron flux maps of the equatorial region near Schiaparelli Crater in Mars eastern hemisphere indicate hydrogen ion concentrations in the shallow subsurface. Published maps of these hydrogen concentrations reveal anomalous linear concentrations of hydrogen with a northeast to southwest trend. The width and trend of these linear anomalies matches the width and trend of the graben between Scylla Scopulus and Charybdis Scopulus further to the south, west of Hellas Basin. These... Topics: GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION, CRATERS, MARS SURFACE, STRUCTURAL BASINS, TOPOGRAPHY, MARS PHOTOGRAPHS,...
The reasearch focused on two areas; (a) the dynamics of forced turbulent flows and (b) time filtered Large Eddy Simulations (TLES). The dynamics of turbulent flows arising from external forcing of the turbulence are poorly understood. In particular, here are many unanswered questions relating the basic dynamical balances and the existence or nonexistence of statistical equilibrium of forced turbulent flows. This research used rapid distortion theory and direct numerical simulations to explore... Topics: REMOTE SENSING, PAYLOADS, OUTCROPS, INFRARED SPECTRA, CAMERAS, ROCKS, MINERALOGY, LITHOLOGY,...
byFaber, Nicolas; Aresini, Andrea; Wauthier, Pascal; Francken, Philipp
This paper discusses recovery scenarios for geosynchronous satellites injected in a non-nominal orbit due to a launcher underperformance. The theory on minimum-fuel orbital transfers is applied to develop an operational tool capable to design a recovery mission. To obtain promising initial guesses for the recovery three complementary techniques are used: p-optimized impulse function contouring, a numerical impulse function minimization and the solutions to the switching equations. The tool... Topics: CHRONOLOGY, STRATIGRAPHY, RADIOMETERS, SOILS, ROCKS, SNC METEORITES, PLANETARY GEOLOGY,...
With one year of global mapping of the Mars Global Surveyor mission completed, the MOLA dataset has achieved excellent spatial and vertical resolution. The maps have been produced from the altimetric observations collected during MOLA's first year of global mapping and provide a variety of regional topographic views of the Martian surface. The maps were compiled from a database of 266.7 million laser altimetric measurements collected between March 1, 1999 and February 29, 2000. In each map the... Topics: Craters, What -- Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter (MGS), What -- Surveyor, What -- Mars Source: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/craters/PIA01049.html
Toward the end of its Primary Mapping Mission, the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) acquired one of its most spectacular pictures of layered sedimentary rock exposed within the ancient crater Becquerel. Pictures such as this one from January 25, 2001, underscore the fact that you never know from one day to the next what the next MOC images will uncover. While the Primary Mission ends January 31, 2001, thousands of new pictures---revealing as-yet-unseen terrain on the red... Topics: Craters, What -- Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter (MGS), What -- Surveyor, What -- Mars, What -- Crater Source: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/craters/PIA03211.html
The story of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft began with a proposal to NASA in 1985. The first MOC flew on Mars Observer, a spacecraft that was lost before it reached the red planet in 1993. Now, after 14 years of effort, a MOC has finally been placed in the desired mapping orbit. The MOC team's happiness is perhaps best expressed by the planet Mars itself. On the first day of the Mapping Phase of the MGS mission--during the second week of March... Topics: Craters, What -- Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter (MGS), What -- Surveyor, What -- Mars, What --... Source: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/craters/PIA01676.html
One of the earliest results of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) investigation shortly after the spacecraft began to orbit Mars in 1997 was the discovery of layered rock outcrops reaching deep down into the martian crust in the walls of the Valles Marineris. Since that time, thousands of MOC images have revealed layered rock in a variety of settings--crater floors, canyon interiors, and scarps exposed by faulting and pitting. This spectacular example taken by MOC in 2001... Topics: Craters, What -- Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter (MGS), What -- Surveyor, What -- Mars, What --... Source: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/craters/PIA03177.html
byPravdivtseva, O. V.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Meshik, A. P
Refractory inclusions, considered to be the oldest solids formed in the solar nebula. (4567.2 0.6 Ma) , are common in many carbonaceous and in some ordinary and enstatite chondrites. High-precision Pb- Pb ages for CAI s and chondrules (from different meteorites) suggested that chondrule formation appeared to have started about 2 Ma later than that of CAIs . However, recent 26Al/26Mg data suggest simultaneous formation of CAI s and chondrules in Allende . The I-Xe ages of CAI s in... Topics: METEORITE CRATERS, GEOMAGNETISM, EARTH GRAVITATION, ARCTIC REGIONS, GRAVITY ANOMALIES, MAGNETIC...
The requirements for air-breathing power plants were determined. The possibilities and requirements were evaluated for controlling thermodynamic processes which results from the peculiarities of their utilization in a space vehicle carrier. The effect of air precooling prior to compression on the performance of air-breathing turbojets was investigated, using the project design of a turbojet engine as an example. A quantitative comparison with the important competing power plant concepts was... Topics: GEOLOGY, MARS SURFACE, METEORITE CRATERS, VOLCANOLOGY, CANALS, EROSION, MARINER 9 SPACE PROBE,...
The simulation employed all six rigid-body degrees of freedom and incorporated aerodynamic characteristics based on wind-tunnel data. The flight instrumentation included a localizer and a flight director which was used to capture and to maintain a two-segment glide slope. A closed-circuit television display of a STOLport provided visual cues during simulations of the approach and landing. The decoupled longitudinal controls used constant prefilter and feedback gains to provide steady-state... Topics: ASTRONOMICAL PHOTOGRAPHY, TOPOGRAPHY, VOLCANOLOGY, GEOLOGY, MARS SURFACE, PLANETARY MAPPING,...
The martian northern plains remain nearly as mysterious today as they seemed 25 years ago during the Viking missions, even though one of those spacecraft--the Viking 2 lander--went to the northern plains. The northern plains are a lowland with fewer impact craters exposed at the surface than the heavily cratered martian southern highlands. Normally, surfaces with fewer craters are considered younger (i.e., they have had less time to accumulate craters). Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter... Topics: Craters, What -- Viking 2 Lander, What -- Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter (MGS), What -- Surveyor,... Source: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/craters/E19-81_82_n_plains.html
RADIATION HAZARD IN SPACE TRAVEL AS IT HAS BEEN ESTIMATED BASED ON THE DATA OF SOVIET AND AMERICAN SPACEFLIGHTS AND TERRESTRIAL EXPERIMENTS IS DISCUSSED. CALCULATIONS, CHARTS AND GRAPHS ARE PROVIDED TO CLARIFY THE TEXT. MANY DATA ARE DRAWN FROM THE APOLLO PROJECTS. Topics: DESCENT TRAJECTORIES, MARS PROBES, U.S.S.R. SPACE PROGRAM, CRATERS, MARS ATMOSPHERE, MARS LANDING,...